Mosquitoes live on every continent except Antarctica and cause most of the world’s insect bites. It’s normal to get a bump and itching after a bite. Stronger reactions could mean you have a mosquito bite allergy or skeeter syndrome, which is another name for the condition. It’s rare and occurs more in children and people who have weakened immune systems.
So let’s look at ways to avoid bug bites and what to do if you get mosquito bite allergy symptoms.
The hungry mosquito pushes the tip of its proboscis or mouth through your skin and into a blood vessel. Then it injects saliva to stop your blood from clotting while it feeds.
Your immune system overreacts to substances known as allergens in the mosquito’s saliva. It creates Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies to defend you against them. Next time you get bitten you could develop mosquito bite allergy.
If that happens, the IgE antibodies tell other cells to release chemicals including histamine. And you may get mosquito bite allergy symptoms like pain, redness, itching and swelling, around the bite site or allergic reactions elsewhere in your body.
Mosquito bites are those itchy bumps that pop up on the skin minutes after someone gets bitten. In a day or so, the bump may go hard and change color. It could also turn into a small blister or cause a darker mark that looks like a bruise. These are all common symptoms of a mosquito bite.
A stronger reaction suggesting a mosquito bite allergy usually develops within hours. It may look like this:
Mosquito bite allergy symptoms are sometimes mistaken for bacterial cellulitis. This happens more often in very young children who may have stronger reactions to mosquito bites than adults. But cellulitis usually takes days to develop. Scratching mosquito bites can cause it.
It may seem sudden but you must have already had those IgE antibodies we spoke about. You usually need to be bitten by a mosquito at least twice to develop an allergy. The first bite puts the body on alert. This is called sensitization. Not all people who become sensitized will go on to have allergic reactions. It’s not yet understood why some people become allergic to mosquito bites and others don’t.
Children are likelier than adults to have skeeter syndrome; that is the more severe allergic reactions to mosquito bites. That may partly be due to something called natural desensitization. Everyone experiences allergy differently. And some people may very gradually stop reacting to bites in the same way after long exposure to the same species. Bites from different types of mosquitoes, on holiday for instance, could still cause more severe reactions.
Testing for mosquito bite allergy is not well developed as it is for common allergies such as pollen or dust mites. Your healthcare provider will probably make their diagnosis by looking at the bites and taking your medical history. They may ask about your worst bite reaction to help predict the likelihood of a severe allergic reaction in the future.
Be the anti-mosquito hero and help your friends and family avoid being bitten too. Here are some basic dos and don’ts:
Be a little careful how you apply insect repellent. It can irritate cuts, scrapes and grazes, sunburn and rashes. Eyes too. Keep it away from childrens’ hands and faces. DEET can also cause irritation if left on the skin for a long time. So wash off the repellent with soap and water as soon as you’re back indoors.
Sometimes, no matter what you try, it’s impossible to prevent mosquito bites. Most local reactions can be treated with home remedies. Raise the affected area and apply an ice pack for 10 minutes to reduce pain and swelling. You can do this as often as needed. Clean blisters with soap and water, making sure not to break them. For itching, try calamine lotion. Or dab on a paste of baking soda and water. Leave on the bite area for 10 minutes, then rinse off.
What other insect bites
There are symptom-relieving allergy medicines if you need them. An over-the-counter antihistamine cream can relieve itching. Hydrocortisone cream, which is a type of corticosteroid, may reduce swelling, and itching. Some concentrations are available as over-the-counter, others with a prescription.
Speak to your healthcare provider if the swelling spreads or you think the bite area could be infected. Telltale signs include your skin feeling warm and a red streak moving outward from the bite. They can also advise on which antihistamine may be best as a preventative measure when you know you’ll be exposed to mosquitoes. This may help if you do tend to have bigger reactions.
Mosquitoes are more likely than many other biting insects to cause anaphylaxis, which affects your whole body. But severe systemic allergic reactions are still very rare (unlike with insect sting allergy). Symptoms that could be part of a more serious reaction and a medical emergency include:
Epinephrine is the main medicine used to treat anaphylaxis. It’s another name for the hormone adrenaline. Your healthcare provider may prescribe an auto-injector if you’re considered at risk of a severe allergic reaction.
It’s a good idea to carry two auto-injectors with you in case a single dose is not enough. Your friends and family may need to help you use it so show them how it works. You should also go to the hospital even if the epinephrine makes you feel better because anaphylaxis can cause a delayed reaction occurring a few hours later.